Essentials of sociology: a down-to-earth approach / James M. Henslin. -- 8th ed. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN (pbk). Essentials of SociologyA Down-to-Earth Approach Eleventh Edition to contents v Down-to-Earth Sociology Gossip and Ridicule to Enforce. Title: Essentials of sociology: a down-to-earth approach / James M. Henslin,. Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville. Description: Thirteenth.
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Study Guide Plus for Henslin Essentials of Sociology A Down-to-Earth Approach Sixth Edition prepared by Katherine R. Rowell Sinclair Community College. Sociology: A Down-to-Earth Approach, Tenth Edition, by James M. Henslin. Published by Allyn & Bacon. . essential to the sociological perspective, for this. Sociology: A Down-to-Earth Approach, Tenth Edition, by James M. Henslin. . To develop a sociological imagination, it is essential to understand how culture.
They sometimes are hampered by role conflict or rale strain. What is ethnomethodology? Ethnomethodology is the study of how people make sense of everyday life.
Ehtnomethodologists try to uncover background assumptions, the basic ideas about the way life is that guide our behavior. What is the social construction of reality? The phrase social construction of reality refers to how we construct our views of the world, which, in turn, underlie our actions. Why are both levels of analysis necessary? Because macrosociology and microsociology focus on different aspects of the human experience, each is necessary for us to understand social life.
Chapter 5: How do sociologists classify groups? Sociologist divide groups into primary groups, secondary groups, in-groups, out-groups, reference groups, and networks. The cooperative, intimate, long-term, face-to face relationships provided by primary groups are fundamental to our sense of self. Secondary groups are larger, relatively temporary, and more anonymous, formal, and impersonal than primary groups.
In-groups provide members with a strong sense of identity and belonging. Out-groups also foster identity by showing in-group members what they are not. Reference groups are groups whose standards we refer to as we evaluate ourselves.
Social networks consist of social ties that link people together. What is the iron law of oligarchy? Sociologist Rover Michels noted that formal organizations have tendency to become controlled by an inner circle that limits leadership in its own members. The dominance of a formal organization by an elite that keeps itself in power is called the iron law of oligarchy.
What are bureaucracies? Bureaucracies are social groups characterized by a hierarchy, division of labor, written rules and communications, and impersonality and replaceability of positions. These characteristics make bureaucracies efficient and enduring. What dysfunctions are associated with bureaucracies? The dysfunctions of bureaucracies include alienation, red tape, lack of communication between units, and goal displacement.
In Webers view, the impersonality of bureaucracies tend to produce alienation among workers-the feeling that no one cares about them and that they do not really fit in. Marxs view of alienation is somewhat differentworkers do not identify with the product of their labor because they participate in only a small part of the production process.
How does the corporate culture affect workers? Within corporate culture are values and stereotypes that are not readily visible. Often, self-fulfilling sterotypes are at work: People who match a corporations hidden corporate culture tend to be put on career tracks that enhance their chance of success, while those who do not matchthose values are set on a course that minimizes their performance.
What is the maximum security society? Computers and surveillance devices are increasingly used to monitor people, especially in the workplace. This intrusive technology is being extended to monitoring our everyday lives.
How does a groups size affect its dynamics? The term group dynamics refers to how individuals affect groups and how groups influence individuals. Ina small group, everyone can interact directly with everyone else. As a group grows larger, its intensity decreases but its stability increases. A dyad, consisting of two people, is the most unstable of human groups, but it provides the most intense intimate relationships. The addition of a third person, forming a triad, fundamentally changes relationships.
Triads are unstable, as coalitions the alignment of some members of a group against others tend to form. As groups grow larger, they develop a more formal structure. What characterizes a leader? A leader is someone who influences others. Instrumental leaders try to keep a group moving toward its goals, even though this causes friction and they lose popularity. There simply is no justification for students to have to wade through cumbersome approaches to sociology.
I am firmly convinced that the introduction to sociology should be enjoyable and that the introductory textbook can be an essential tool in sharing the discovery of sociology with students. The Organization of This Text This text is laid out in five parts.
Part I focuses on the sociological perspective, which is introduced in the first chapter.
We then look at how culture influences us Chapter 2 , examine socialization Chapter 3 , and compare macrosociology and microsociology Chapter 4. We first examine the different types of groups that have such profound influences on us and then look at the fascinating area of group dynamics Chapter 5.
On the negative side, ethnocentrism can lead to discrimination against people whose ways differ from ours. The many ways in which culture affects our lives fascinate sociologists. This will serve as a basis from which you can start to analyze your own assumptions of reality. I should give you a warning at this point: You might develop a changed perspec- tive on social life and your role in it. If so, life will never look the same. In Sum: Arabs wear gowns on the street and feel that it is natural to do so.
Americans do the same with jeans. It is just as arbitrary to stand in line as to push and shove. Culture penetrates deeply into our thinking, becoming a taken-for-granted lens through which we see the world and obtain our perception of reality. Culture provides implicit instructions that tell us what we ought to do and how we ought to think.
It establishes a fundamental basis for our decision making. I, for example, believed deeply that it was wrong to push and shove to get ahead of others. Coming into contact with a radically different culture challenges our basic assumptions about life. I experienced culture shock when I discovered that my deeply ingrained cultural ideas about hygiene and the use of personal space no longer applied. Although the particulars of culture differ from one group of people to another, culture itself is universal.
That is, all people have culture, for a society cannot exist without developing shared, learned ways of dealing with the challenges of life. All people are ethnocentric, which has both positive and negative consequences. For an example of how culture shapes our ideas and behavior, consider how some people dance with the dead. You can read about this in the Cultural Diversity around the World box on the next page. Practicing Cultural Relativism To counter our tendency to use our own culture as the standard by which we judge other cultures, we can practice cultural relativism; that is, we can try to understand a culture on its own terms.
This means looking at how the elements of a culture fit together, without judging those elements as inferior or superior to our own way of life. With our own culture embedded so deeply within us, practic- ing cultural relativism is difficult to do. It is likely that the Malagasy custom of dancing with the dead seemed both strange and wrong to you. If we practice cultural relativism, however, we will view both dancing with the dead and bullfighting from the perspec- tive of the cultures in which they take place.
It will be their history, their folklore, their ideas of bravery, sex roles, and mortality that we will use to understand their behavior.
You may still regard dancing with the dead as strange and bull- fighting as wrong, of course, particularly if your culture, which is deeply ingrained in you, has no history of dancing with the dead or of bullfighting. We all possess culturally specific ideas about how to show respect to the dead. We also possess culturally specific ideas cultural relativism not judging a culture but trying to understand it on its own terms Many Americans perceive bullfighting as a cruel activity that should be illegal everywhere.
To most Spaniards, bullfighting is a sport that pits matador and bull in a unifying image of power, courage, and glory. Cultural relativism requires that we suspend our own perspectives in order to grasp the perspectives of others, something easier described than attained.
Explore on MySocLab Activity: The Asian Population in the United States: In Part III, we turn our focus on social inequality, examining how it pervades society and its impact on our own lives. The first Chapter 7 , with its global focus, presents an overview of the principles of stratification. The second Chapter 8 , with its emphasis on social class, focuses on stratification in U. After establishing this broader context of social stratification, we examine inequalities of race and ethnicity Chapter 9 and then those of gender and age Chapter Part IV helps students become more aware of how social institutions encompass their lives.
We first look at politics and the economy, our overarching social institutions Chapter After examining the family Chapter 12 , we then turn our focus on education and religion Chapter One of the emphases in this part of the book is how our social institutions are changing and how their changes, in turn, influence our orientations and decisions.
With its focus on broad social change, Part V provides an appropriate conclusion for the book. Here we examine why our world is changing so rapidly, as well as catch a glimpse of what is yet to come.
We first analyze trends in population and urbanization, those sweeping forces that affect our lives so significantly but that ordinarily remain below our level of awareness Chapter We conclude the book with an analysis of technology, social movements, and the environment Chapter 15 , which takes us to the cutting edge of the vital changes that engulf us all.
Themes and Features Six central themes run throughout this text: For each of these themes, except globalization, which is incorporated in several of the others, I have written a series of boxes.
These boxed features are one of my favorite components of the book. They are especially useful for introducing the controversial topics that make sociology such a lively activity.
Down-to-Earth Sociology As many years of teaching have taught me, all too often textbooks are written to appeal to the adopters of texts rather than to the students who must learn from them. The term is also featured in my introductory reader, Down-to- Earth Sociology: Introductory Readings, to appear in its 15th edition New York: The Free Press, This first theme is highlighted by a series of boxed features that explore sociological processes that underlie everyday life.
The topics we review in these Down-to-Earth Sociology boxes are highly diverse. Here are some of them. Du Bois, an early sociologist, in studying U. To reinforce this theme, I avoid unnecessary jargon and use concise explanations and clear and simple but not reductive language.
Globalization In the second theme, globalization, we explore the impact of global issues on our lives and on the lives of people around the world. All of us are feeling the effects of an increasingly powerful and encompassing global economy, one that intertwines the fates of nations. The globalization of capitalism influences the kinds of skills and knowledge we need, the types of work available to us—and whether work is available at all.
Globalization also underlies the costs of the goods and services we consume and whether our country is at war or peace—or, as we seem to be in our permanent war economy, in some uncharted middle ground between the two.
In addition to the strong emphasis on global issues that runs throughout this text, I have written a separate chapter on global stratification Chapter 7.
I also feature global issues in the chapters on social institutions and the final chapters on social change: What occurs in Russia, Germany, and China, as well as in much smaller nations such as Syria and Iraq, has far- reaching consequences on our own lives. Consequently, in addition to the global focus that runs throughout the text, the next theme, cultural diversity, also has a strong global emphasis.
Cultural Diversity around the World and in the United States The third theme, cultural diversity, has two primary emphases. The first is cultural diversity around the world. At times, when we learn about other cultures, we gain an appreciation for the life of other peoples. To highlight this first subtheme, I have written a series of boxes called Cultural Diversity around the World.
The stimulating contexts of these contrasts can help students develop their sociological imagination. They encourage students to see connections among key sociological concepts such as culture, socialization, norms, race—ethnicity, gender, and social class.
Critical Thinking In our fourth theme, critical thinking, we focus on controversial social issues, inviting students to examine various sides of those issues. Like the boxed features, these sections can enliven your classroom with a vibrant exchange of ideas.
Because of their controversial nature, these sections stimulate both critical thinking and lively class discussions. They also provide provocative topics for in- class debates and small discussion groups, effective ways to enliven a class and present sociological ideas.
Sociology and the New Technology The fifth theme, sociology and the new technology, explores an aspect of social life that has come to be central in our lives. We welcome our many new technological tools, for they help us to be more efficient at performing our daily tasks, from making a living to communicating with others—whether those people are nearby or on the other side of the globe. The significance of our new technology, however, extends far beyond the tools and the ease and efficiency they bring to our lives.
The new technology is better envisioned as a social revolution that will leave few aspects of our lives untouched. Its effects are so profound that it even changes the ways we view life. This theme is introduced in Chapter 2, where technology is defined and presented as an essential aspect of culture. The impact of technology is then discussed throughout the text.
Examples include how technology is related to cultural change Chapter 2 , fantasy life Chapter 4 , the control of workers Chapter 5 , and the maintenance of global stratification Chapter 7. To highlight this theme, I have written a series of boxes titled Sociology and the New Technology.
In these boxes, we explore how technology affects our lives as it changes society. We consider how they penetrate our consciousness to such a degree that they even influence how we perceive our own bodies.
As your students consider this theme, they may begin to grasp how the mass media shape their attitudes. If so, they will come to view the mass media in a different light, which should further stimulate their sociological imagination. To make this theme more prominent for students, I have written a series of boxed features called Mass Media in Social Life.
As is discussed in the next section, some of the most interesting—and even fascinating—topics are presented in a visual form. Poet in Qatar sentenced to life in prison for writing a poem critical of the royal family Topic: Chinese leaders block Internet access to Facebook and Twitter Topic: The Picosecond laser scanner can read molecules on a human body Topic: Researching the American Dream: A Personal Journey Figure 8.
Living in the Dorm: Contact Theory Down-to-Earth Sociology box: Unpacking the Invisible Knapsack: Exploring Cultural Privilege Topic: Predatory lending increased monthly payments for home mortgages, causing many African Americans to lose their homes when the economic crisis hit Topic: Senate Topic: President Obama signed an Executive Order allowing work permits to unauthorized immigrants who meet certain qualifications Chapter 10 Gender and Age Thinking Critically section: Making the Social Explicit: Affirmative Action for Men?
Down-to-Earth Sociology box: Applying Sociology: How to Get a Higher Salary Topic: Women in jobs that give them authority and men in nurturing occupations reaffirm their gender at home Topic: Both males and females who are given a single dose of testosterone seek higher status and show less regard for the feelings of others Topic: Dominance behavior, such as winning a game, produces higher levels of testosterone Topic: Targeted Killings Topic: The communist rulers of China, sensitive to online communications, change course if they sense strong sentiment in some direction Topic: Health Benefits of Marriage: Chapter 1 The Sociological Perspective Topic: The divorce rate of couples who cohabit before marriage is about the same as those who did not cohabit.
Malls track patrons through their Smartphones so stores can send them targeted ads Topic: Face-recognition cameras at kiosks classify people by age and sex and post targeted ads Topic: Are We Prisoners of Our Genes? Gender messages from homosexual parents Topic: Babies might have an inborn sense of fairness, indicating that, like language, morality is a capacity hardwired in the brain Topic: Students give higher ratings to better- looking teachers Topic: To become slender, some women inject themselves daily with hCG, a hormone that comes from the urine of pregnant women Chapter 5 Social Groups and Formal Organizations Topic: Network analysis is being used to reduce gang violence Topic: The Saints and the Roughnecks: Labeling in Everyday Life Thinking Critically section: When the State Breaks Down Topic: The number of U.
S prisoners has begun to drop Topic: Participant observation of youth gangs confirms research that ideas of masculinity encourage violence, including homicide Topic: Diversion as a way to avoid labeling youthful offenders as delinquent Topic: Citigroup fined over a half billion dollars for selling fraudulent subprime mortgages Topic: California is releasing some prisoners whose third crime under the three-strikes law was not violent Topic: The elimination of lead in gasoline could be the main cause for the drop in crime Topic: The estate system of social stratifiation Topic: Family Structure: Love and Arranged Marriage in India Topic: New Bianchi research on the gendered division of family labor Topic: Single women who give birth are taking longer to get married Topic: Durkheim concentrated on understanding the importance of social interaction and social integration, stressing that human behavior could not be understood in individualistic terms.
Max Weber challenged the conclusions of Marx that economics was the central force of social change Weber believed that role belonged to religion. Weber did extensive work on how religious doctrine affected the development of capitalism in Europe. Describe the evidence that Weber used to support his thesis. Answer: The Protestant ethic refers to the self-denying approach to life that included living a frugal life, saving money, and investing the surplus in order to make even more money.
This brought about the birth of capitalism. The Roman Catholic belief system, on the other hand, encouraged its followers to hold on to traditional ways of life that discouraged the economic change that was embraced by the Protestants. Weber termed the readiness to invest capital in order to make more money the spirit of capitalism. To test this theory, Weber compared the extent of capitalism in Roman Catholic and Protestant countries. In line with this theory, he found that capitalism was more likely to flourish in Protestant countries.
Page Ref: 5 Why would it be more accurate to classify Harriet Martineau as a doer and not a thinker in the way her contemporary European sociologists were? Answer: Most early European sociologists were pure sociologists. They studied social conditions and formulated theory but failed to apply their findings to the social world.
Rather than engaging in theory and research for the sake of research, Martineau studied social life in both Great Britain and America. She did a detailed analysis of American customs, family, race, gender, politics, and religion. Her book Society in America, which documented her observations of the American way of life, has become a classic among sociologists. She also translated Comte s original work into English. This made the study of sociology possible in the English-speaking world in the later part of the 19th century and expedited its foothold in America in the s.
Page Ref: 9 6 Identify the major contributions made by women and minorities to sociology as the discipline developed in Europe and North America. Martineau also published accounts of her travels in America in which she documented observations about the American family, race, politics, and religion. Jane Addams, although trained in medicine, practiced applied sociology with the founding of Hull-House, a refuge shelter for the homeless, sick, immigrants, and the poor.
Of all the early American sociologists, W. Du Bois was one of the most significant contributors to the discipline.
Du Bois worked to improve the relationship between whites and blacks and championed the civil rights of African Americans decades before the movement picked up momentum in the s. Page Ref: Page 18 23 Chapter 1 The Sociological Perspective 7 Most sociologists interpret social life from one of three major theoretical frameworks.
Describe the major points of each framework. List at least one sociologist who has been identified with each of these three theories. Answer: The three major theoretical frameworks are symbolic interactionism, functional analysis, and conflict theory. The major emphasis of symbolic interactionism is communication through symbols, and symbolic interactionists analyze how behavior depends on the ways we define ourselves and others. The self is a symbol that conveys meaning to which others react.
Functional analysis states that society as a whole is made up of interrelated parts that work together. Functionalists address the structure of society how the parts of a society fit together to make the whole and function what each part does and how it contributes to society. Conflict theory stresses that society is composed of groups that engage in fierce competition for scarce resources. Karl Marx can be considered the father of conflict theory. Additional contributions were made to this perspective by C.
Wright Mills and Lewis Coser in the 20th century. Page Ref: Based on the theoretical perspective of functional analysis, what is a function? What is a dysfunction? Describe how a function can be manifest or latent, giving examples of each.
Answer: Functions are beneficial consequences of people s actions that help a system to remain in balance. Dysfunctions are the human actions that hurt a system.
Manifest functions are planned or intended. Latent functions are unintended consequences that harm a system. An example of a manifest function for universities is to provide students the skills necessary to develop a career or to acquire skills required for further graduate study.
A latent function would be to have the opportunity to discover a spouse or to keep over 15 million people the number of college students out of the job market. A dysfunction of college life would be an excess of partying created by a newfound independence that leads to alcoholism or eventual dismissal from the university. Page Ref: List and discuss the eight steps of the scientific research model.
Why might a sociological researcher use less than eight steps? Answer: 1 Selecting a topic. What has already been published on the topic? Define hypothesis, variables, and operational definition as a part of this section.
This is the means by which data will be collected. There are seven basic research methods: surveys, participant observation, case studies, secondary analysis, examining documents, experiments, and unobtrusive measures.
Include the importance of validity and reliability. This includes testing the hypothesis, summarizing, and comparing the data collected. This includes preparing reports, charts, and tables, and submitting articles for publication.
Not all authors use eight distinct steps. Some condense the steps and have less than eight. Define what is meant by ethics. What were the ethical considerations involved in the research by Laud Humphreys? Answer: Research ethics emphasize openness, honesty, and truth and condemns falsification, plagiarism, and harm to subjects.
Subjects participating in research are not to be harmed, mislead, or subjected to unwanted publicity and notoriety. Laud Humphrey misled subjects by misrepresenting himself. After posing as a watch queen a lookout in a tea room a public restroom where men often met for casual homosexual sex , Humphreys determined the identities of the men participating in causal sex and then interviewed them claiming they had been chosen to participate in a medical survey.
During the interviews for the non-existent medical survey, Humphreys explored the lifestyles and sex lives of the men. To avoid suspicion of the participants in the study, Humphreys disguised himself and made no reference to his knowledge of their homosexual conduct.
Page Ref: Open Book Questions 1 At the beginning of the chapter, the author describes the revulsion he feels when he sees teeth marks on the styrofoam cup from which he was drinking coffee at a shelter for homeless men. He knew the cup had been cleaned in a washtub by a man behind the counter before it was handed to him.
Using symbolic interactionism, explain why the author had such a strong emotional reaction to viewing the teeth marks. Answer: The roots of symbolic interactionism are in symbols, things to which we attach meaning, and how individuals react to the meaning these symbols convey. Finding teeth marks in his cup conveyed a symbol that someone else had used the same cup previously, probably one of the fellow homeless men at the shelter.
The symbols of homelessness conveyed by the other men at the shelter, being unclean, unsanitary, and destitute, contributed to an experience of hopelessness the author documents. Page Ref: 3; What social policies might Herbert Spencer have advocated to deal with people who are poor and disabled? Compare Spencer s likely response to the strategy underlying current social policies toward these groups.
Answer: Spencer may have advocated refusing to provide public support to the poor. He would have supported policies to isolate them to reduce the opportunity for them to reproduce. He would oppose current social welfare policies that assist people who cannot provide for themselves because they are unfit and society improves only if these people do not pass along these traits to later generations.
Page Ref: 6 Page 20 25 Chapter 1 The Sociological Perspective 3 Karl Marx predicted the proletariat would eventually overthrow the bourgeoisie in a violent revolution. Based on his observations of mid-nineteenth century England and Europe, why does Marx s analysis and prediction of class conflict, not apply to Western, industrialized societies today?
Answer: The class divisions that exist today are not as clear and sharp as they were during Marx s lifetime. Conflict theorists such as Marx stressed that society is composed of groups that are competing with another for scarce resources, such as the proletariats and the bourgeoisie.
Although it can be argued that workers may still be exploited, their lives and living conditions are not as miserable as noted in the nineteenth century. Today, the division between capitalists and workers is less clear in contemporary society, where a large proportion of the population owns stock in corporations in which they may or may not be employed.
Page Ref: ; 18 4 Using the three major theoretical perspectives in sociology found in Table 1. Answer: Answers will vary. Page Ref: The social history of the family clearly shows that many functions previously performed by the family are now performed by other institutions. Based on your personal experience, list the functions currently performed by most families. Do families provide fewer or different functions than in the past?
Answer: Functions currently performed by families include providing food, clothing, and shelter for young children; coordinating the work schedules of two wage earners; providing transportation to work, school, after-school, and recreational activities for adults and children; coordinating financial matters for all members; providing moral guidance and supervision for children; providing for romantic and sexual activities for marriage partners; providing for recreational activities for marriage partners and young children.
The discussion of changing functions should acknowledge that families still perform many functions, although many are different from the functions provided by families in earlier generations. For example, sex education has been designated to the school system, vocational training to institutions of higher education, and religious doctrine more to the church.
Page Ref: Select a topic suitable for research and discuss how a student would develop this topic into a research project using the eight steps of the research model as identified in the textbook. Answer: Follow the research model as it is presented on pp When selecting a topic for research, it should be broad enough so that information can be found about the topic, but narrow enough so that it challenges the student and offers the potential for in -depth study.
Make a class roster that includes the first name, sex, age, and grade point average of the 25 students. Then, develop a table based on this data along with all the components used in Table 1. Incorporate the means, medians, and modes of the data collected when appropriate grade point averages and ages of the members.
Summarize other data in an appropriate form. Answer: The table will summarize the data contained in the roster. The table must include a title, headnote, headings, columns, and rows. For the source, specify the university, your class number, section, semester, and year. Page Ref: 23 8 Dr. Zarchov has just completed calculating the test scores of her Introduction to Sociology honors class.
The 15 students in the course registered the following scores out of a maximum of points: 85, 96, 86, 96, 91, 89, 87, 86, 96, 86, 85, 99, 85, 98, Based on these scores, what is the mean, median, and mode? If you were Dr. Zarchov, what grading scale would you assign to the scores and why? Answer: The range of the scores is 85 to The mean or arithmetic average is The median, the middle score, is The mode is The median is probably the best measure to use for comparisons.
When assigning grades, Dr. Zarchov may be using a percentage scale required by the university for grading.